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This help article explains how to add a reference or footnote to an article.

There are a few items you will need to know about:

The easiest way to add a reference to an article is by adding {{ref|text=This is a reference}}. It will appear like this [1] If you try and save the article now, you might get the following error:

Cite error: <ref> tags exist, but no <references/> tag was found

This is because it wants to add a list of all the references you've added to the article, but you havent told it where to do this. The best and most preferred place for them is at the end of the article in a section called Notes, along with any Categories and Information tables. To do this, add a section at the end as follows

== Notes ==
<references />
info tables

This will produce a list as follows


  1. This is a reference

Reference Templates[edit]

The different references templates help encode different types of reference easily. The most common are the {{book ref}} and {{qa ref}} templates, which link to chapter summaries and Theoryland Interview Database Q&A entries respectively. Other useful templates are {{bws ref}}, {{tor ref}} and {{17s ref}} which help link to Brandon's site, and the 17th Shard fansite respectively.

  • General urls can be linked to using {{url ref}}
  • Tweets can be linked with {{tweet ref}}
  • Brandon's chapter annotations can be accessed through {{annotation ref}}
  • If you want to cite a map, use {{map ref}}
  • Any other file on the wiki can be cited with {{file ref}}
  • Epigraphs can be directly referenced with {{epigraph ref}}
  • Glossary pages can be accessed through {{glossary ref}}
  • Other pages on the wiki use {{article ref}}

Named references[edit]

If you want to reuse a reference, say two parts of the article refer to the same chapter, you can add a name to the reference which allows you to reuse it somewhere else. This is done as follows

This is the first fact{{ref|name=NAME|text=this is a reference that gets used multiple times}}[1]

This is another fact that needs the sane reference{{ref|name=NAME}}[1]

If you add a named reference which doesn't include extra text with it, {{ref|name=NOTEXT}}, the following will happen.[2]


  1. a b this is a reference that gets used multiple times
  2. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named NOTEXT

Notes versus References[edit]

Some articles have points which aren't references, but still need to be notation rather than part of the article proper. This can be accomplished with the group tag.

This is a statement which needs notating

{{ref|group=nb|text=And this is a notation}}[nb 1]

Where as this needs a reference

{{ref|text=This tag doesnt even have a group}}[1]


<references />
  1. This tag doesnt even have a group
<references group=nb />
  1. And this is a notation